Unit 1 Class 10 English: Current Affairs and Issues | How Driverless Cars will Change our World | Neb English Notes

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Unit 1 Class 10 English: Current Affairs and Issues | How Driverless Cars will Change our World | Neb English Notes
Neb English Notes 

Unit 1 Class 10: Current Affairs and Issues | How Driverless Cars will Change our World | Neb English Notes 

๐Ÿ”ธ️๐Ÿ”น️๐Ÿ”ธ️๐Ÿ”น️๐Ÿ”ธ️๐Ÿ”น️๐Ÿ”ธ️๐Ÿ”น️๐Ÿ”ธ️

Unit 1: Current Affairs and Issues

Reading I

Answer the following questions.

a. What do you know about artificial intelligence (AI)?

Answer:

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the emulation of human intelligence especially in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions.  The term can also be applied to any machine that exhibits characteristics associated with the human mind such as learning and problem-solving.


b. How do you think AI has changed the world?

Answer:

I think AI has changed the world by bringing unprecedented changes in various sectors. It has brought changes in the development of marketing, high-tech robotics, medical care, transportation system, education, manufacturing, media, customer service etc.

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How Driverless Cars will Change Our World
By Jenny Cusack 30th November. 2021

A. The following words have two different meanings. Match each word with the meaning used in the context of the text above.

a. glare

i. an angry or fierce stare

ii. an intense blinding light

a. glare 》ii. an intense blinding light


b. curb

i. a stone edging to a pavement or raised path

ii. something that checks or restrains

b. curb 》i. a stone edging to a pavement or raised path


c. hail

i. to call to somebody in order to attract their attention

ii. to describe somebody/something as being very good or special

c. hail 》i. to call to somebody in order to attract their attention


d. commute

i. to replace a punishment with a less severe one

ii. to travel regularly between workplace and home

d. commute 》ii. to travel regularly between workplace and home


e. serene

i. calm and peaceful

ii. an expanse of clear sky or calm sea

e. serene 》i. calm and peaceful


f. liability

i. a person or thing that causes you a lot of problems

ii. the state of being legally responsible for something

f. liability 》ii. the state of being legally responsible for something


g. deploy

i. to move soldiers or weapons into a position for an action

ii. to use something effectively

g. deploy 》ii. to use something effectively


h. autonomous

i. a vehicle that has the technology to drive itself

ii. able to do things and make decisions without help from anyone else

h. autonomous 》i. a vehicle that has the technology to drive itself


i. perception

i. a belief or an image about how you see or understand something

ii. the ability to understand the true nature of something

i. perception 》ii. the ability to understand the true nature of something


B. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences below.

a. One of the features of automated cars is that ......................

i. they wait for the passengers.

ii. they approach slowly.

iii. They have their own voice to welcome people into them.

ii. they approach slowly.


b.  Driverless technology is being widely used particularly in .........................

i. the USA  ii. the UK  iii. the UAE

i. the USA


c. The positive impact of such technology on the environment is .........................

i. it prevents road accidents.

il. it paves the way to sustainable life.

iii. it reduces carbon production.

iii. it reduces carbon production.


d. One of the problems with driverless technology is that.........................

i. it cannot deal with traffic system.

ii. it cannot deal with human drivers.

iii. it cannot cope with other cars.

ii. it cannot deal with human drivers.


e. One of the biggest challenges of the automated cars is .......................

i. its safety from the human environment

ii. human safety from it

iii. its durability in the human environment

ii. human safety from it


f. The automated technology developed so far is ..................................

i. completely trustworthy

ii. partly trustworthy

iii. not trustworthy at all

ii. partly trustworthy


C. Answer the following questions.

a. Mention any three features of the driverless car.

Answer:

The following are three features of the driverless car:

i. It has a full collision avoidance system.

ii. It has active sensors, radar and cameras to detect the lane and its surrounding.

iii. It has the vehicle to a vehicle communication system.


b. Describe the benefits of driverless technology.

Answer:

The following are the benefits of driverless technology:

a. Less chance of road accidents. 

b. Better mode of transportation. 

c. Secure and peaceful ride.

d. Reduce traffic congestion and pollution. 

e. Reduce time travel and transportation costs.


c. What, according to Camilla Fowler, is the special advantage of automated vehicles?

Answer:

According to Camilla Fowler, a safe ride or a ride with fewer fatalities is the special advantage of automated vehicles.


d. What are the problems with driverless vehicles in David Hynd's views?

Answer:

In David Hynd's views, the following are the problems with driverless vehicles:

a. There is still a need for change in driverless technology.

b. Driverless technology will get problems with human drivers around it.

c. Varieties of things need improvements in driverless technology in the matter of safety such as public trust, the infrastructure of different locations, regulations, and rethinking the Highway Code to avoid road accidents. 


e. What are scientists doing to make driverless technolog safer?

Answer:

Scientists are doing the following things to make driverless technology safer:

1. They are improving driverless technology both within the industry, wider transport networks and personal-use cars.

2. They are conducting their tests to operate driverless vehicles safely and effectively in complex and unpredictable human environments. 


f. Do you think driverless technology is safer than human-controlled driving? Why?

Answer:

Yes, I think driverless technology is safer than human-controlled driving. It is because driverless technology is fully based on a combination of sensors, cameras, radar and artificial intelligence (AI) to travel between destinations without a human operator. There are fewer chances of accidents in comparison to human-controlled driving. 


D. Think of any three other areas where artificial intelligence (AI) has been used. What are the benefits of using Al in these areas? Share your ideas with the class.

Answer:

The three other areas where artificial intelligence (AI) has been used are as follows.

No. 1. The area of Education: 

Although the field of education is recognized as one of the most influenced areas by humans, Artificial Intelligence has slowly started taking root in the education sector as well.

In the education area too, this slow transition of AI has helped in increasing the productivity among the faculties and helped them to focus more on the students than on office or administration work.


No. 2. Applications of Artificial Intelligence in the Robotics Field:

In present times, robotics is another area where artificial intelligence applications are commonly used.  The AI-powered robots use real-time updates to sense obstacles in their path and pre-plan their journey immediately.

Nowadays, robots are used by people for their benefit. These AI-powered robots help people with various tasks such as:

▪︎  Carrying goods in hospitals, factories, and warehouses

▪︎  Cleaning offices and large equipment

▪︎  Inventory management


No. 3: Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Healthcare:

Artificial intelligence has found diverse applications in the field of medical healthcare.  AI applications are used in healthcare especially to build sophisticated machines that can detect diseases and identify cancer cells.  Artificial intelligence can help analyze chronic conditions along with laboratory and other medical data to ensure early diagnosis.  AI uses a combination of historical data and medical intelligence to discover new drugs. 

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ADVERTISEMENT/ VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT SET 1 TO 23 ( IMPORTANT FOR SEE PREPARATION)

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Pronunciation

Consult a dictionary and transcribe the following words as in the example. Then pronounce the words correctly.


Example: glare -/glea(r)/

curb -  /kษœหb/

junction -  /หˆdส’สŒล‹kสƒษ™n/ 

carbon - /หˆkษ‘หbษ™n/

car - /kษ‘ห/

president - /หˆpษนษ›zษชdษ™nt/

hurdle - /หˆhษœหdษ™l/

exterior -  /ษ›kหˆstษชษ™ษนษชษ™/

driver - /หˆdษนaษช.vษ™(ษน)/

traffic - /หˆtษนรฆfษชk/

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Grammar I

A. Match the following statements with the correct reported speech and notice how the statements are changed.

Answer:

a. Khushi said, “I go to school every day by bus.” v. Khushi said that she went to school every day by bus.


b. Karma said to me, “I am sorry for coming late." i. Karma apologised for coming late.


c. Susan says, “I will leave for Bhanu next week.” ii. Susan says that she will leave for Bhanu the following week.


d. Tsheringsaid, “I will surely meet you this Saturday.”  iii. Tshering promised me to meet that Saturday.


e. “The bus leaves at six,” said the agent. iv. The agent informed us that the bus left at six.

 

f. “I have already finished my project work,” said She. She said that she had already finished her project work.


g. “I work from home these days,”, said Yanjal. vi. Yanjal said that he worked from home those days.


B. Complete the following sentences with the correct reporting verbs.

advised  admitted  warned  offered  thanked

informed  agreed  apologised  promised

a.  “I broke the mirror.” He ............... that he had broken the mirror.

admitted


b. "I'd go and see a doctor if I were you," Pemba said to me. Pemba................ me to see a doctor.

advised


c. “I will send you out if you make a noise again,” said the librarian

The librarian .............me not to make a noise again.

warned


d. "I can come and help you plant rice,” said Raman. 

Raman............to help me plant rice.

offered


e. “The classes start from next week.” said the assistant. The assistant ............... us that the classes start from the following week.

informed


f. Sonam said to me, “Thank you so much for your help.” Sonam...................me for my help.

thanked


g. “OK. I will return your money by Saturday,” said Prakriti.

Prakriti............ to return my money by Saturday.

promised


h. “I will really work hard and score good grades,” said Anupam.

Anupam............. to work hard and get good grades.

agreed


i. “I am sorry for coming late,” said the speaker. The speaker................ for coming late.

apologised 

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Writing I

The use of Al in the technology is not only making people's lives easier but bringing new challenges. Write a newspaper article about the challenges brought by the advancement of Al in technology.

Answer:

The Challenges Brought by the Advancement of Al in Technology

Kathmandu Post

2023

Artificial Intelligence is a revolutionary technology that saves time, energy, and money. Artificial intelligence or Al technology has revolutionized the way of living of human beings. This technology is transforming varieties of sectors of human lives. In every sector, AI technology is spreading its roots and activating its performance in a very rapid manner. It has brought numerous unprecedented changes in various sectors. Due to this rapid growth of AI technology, varieties of challenges are also seen in human societies. 


Among its challenges, one of the major challenges is unemployment. In the past time, machines in the factories were handled by humans. The machines were specially reserved for humans only. But in the present time, due to the advancement of AI technology, machines in different sectors have become more advanced in their performances. Here in this situation, there is the risk of job loss of human beings. Humans'  jobs are being replaced by AI-powered machines. 

 

The next challenge is the lack of trust among people towards AI technology. Most people in the world don’t even know the use of Artificial Intelligence. They are quite unaware about the fact how AI is integrated into the everyday items they interact with such as smartphones, Smart TVs, Banking, and even cars. Due to the lack of their trust, they don't have confidence in AI technology. They seem somewhat doubtful about this modern technology. 


The next challenge of AI technology is the gap between humans. Humans' closeness will be gradually seen diminishing as AI will replace the need for people to meet face to face for ideas or feelings exchange. AI technology or digital machines will stand in between people as personal gatherings will no longer be needed for human communication.

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IMPORTANT SHORT STORIES SETS(IMPORTANT FOR SEE PREPARATION)

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The next challenge that will be faced by humans due to AI technology is wealth inequality. Due to the presence of AI digital machines, there will be the problem of income inequality among people. The minded investors make their quick investment in the modern AI technology which will lead them to the economic height. They will take up the major share of the earnings. But for uneducated people, this technology will bring fewer opportunities. Due to this reason, the gap between the rich and the poor will be widened. 

Conclusion:

There are still many challenges in terms of the application of AI in human life.  People will encounter a variety of things that they have not experienced before.  Although technology can bring advanced life, it also has a variety of negative effects.

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Reading II

Open Letter to UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres

QA. Fill in the blanks with the correct words given below.

tackle     corporate  outrage     catalyse

at stake     net-zero   expertise

a. The.............. headquarters of the company is in Dubai.

corporate


b. According to Greta, the leaders are failing to.................... the key issues.

tackle


c. Some viruses .......... the step in the production of other viruses.

catalyse


d. His.............. in business helped him greatly to run the company.

expertise 


e. Nepal government plans to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to .................

net-zero


f. He does not have good knowledge of business. So, he has put his investment ..............

at stake


g. His controversial remarks caused public .......................

outrage


B. Write whether the following sentences are ‘True’ or ‘False’. Write ‘Not Given’ if the information is not found in the letter.

a. Save the Children congratulates Antonio Guterres on his recent appointment as the General Secretary of the UN.

》Not Given


b. The Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change was announced on the request of the children between 18-21 years of age.

》false


c. The dissatisfaction is that the representation of children is not inclusive.

》True


d. Greta Thunberg protested for the right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment.

》True


e. The children demand their physical safety in the UK and Italy.

》Not Given


f. The children think that they can participate in decision making to fight against the climate crisis.

》True


C. Answer the following questions.

a. Where is the office of the UN Secretary General? 

Answer:

The office of the UN Secretary General is in New York City.


b. What is the purpose of writing this letter to Antonio Guterres?

Answer:

The purpose of writing this letter to Antonio Guterres is to request the re-inclusion of children in the Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change.


c. Why was the Youth Advisory Group announced?

Answer: 

The Youth Advisory Group was announced especially to advise Mr. Antonio Guterres on accelerating global action and the ambition to tackle the worsening climate crisis.


d. What roles have children played in the time of climate crisis?

Answer:

In the time of climate crisis, children have played the role of agents of change in the climate debate using their channels of influence - schools, social media, and street protests - to catalyze global activism on the climate crisis.


e. Describe Greta Thuberg and Fabrizio's contributions.

Answer: 

Both Greta Thunberg and Fabrizio contributed in the year 2018 and 2020 respectively. Greta Thunberg is a Swedish climate youth activist who sparked an international movement through an inspiring solo protest for climate change beginning in 2018 and children like Fabrizio are vocal in their anxiety that our dash to economic recovery will scupper climate change and net-zero commitments.


f. What is the final demand of the children?

Answer:

The final demand of the children is to make the Youth Advisory Group on climate change inclusive of children and adolescents younger than 18, respecting their right to be heard and to contribute their expertise directly. They also want to provide support happily to a process that facilitates meaningful engagement with children across the globe on both the Group and COP26.


D. As a student, what roles can you play to control climate change and its effects? Share your ideas in the class.

Answer:

As a student, I can play the following roles to control climate change and its effects:

1. I can try to save energy at home by turning off lights and unplugging electronics when not in use and using energy-efficient appliances.

2. I can make less use of fossil fuels in my life by using electric vehicles. 

3. I can try to walk on my foot or use a cycle for transportation. This will help me to reduce carbon emissions.

3. I can try to eat more vegetables in my life. This activity can surely reduce meat consumption. As we know livestock is one of the biggest contaminators of the atmosphere and brings climate change.

4. I can try to throw away fewer food items.

5. I can try my best to reuse, repair & recycle old things.

6. I can change my home's source of energy and focus more on the plantation of trees in my surroundings. 

7. I can educate and aware my closers about climate change and its effects.

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IMPORTANT ESSAYS SET ( IMPORTANT FOR SEE PREPARATION)

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Grammar ll

A. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences.

a. Abhilasha said that she...................... (witnessed. has witnessed, was witnessed) the accident.

witnessed


b. The teacher explained that................... (the earth revolves round the sun, the earth revolved round the sun, revolve round the sun),

the earth revolves round the sun


c. Smarika says that ............... (she could not stay there anymore, I can't stay here anymore, she can't stay here anymore).

she can't stay here anymore


d. Sachita says that.................. ( she loves to listen to music, she loved to listen to music, I love to listen to music).

she loves to listen to music


e. My brother reported that.................. ( he had completed his homework, I have completed my homework, he has done his homework).

he had completed his homework 


f. My father said that the sun .............(is, are , was ) very hot.

is


g. Jenifer said that she ................ (want, wants, wanted) to be a nurse.

wanted


B. Rewrite the following sentences in indirect speech.

a. Raima said, “We had to cross the river and go ahead.”

Rima said that they had to cross the river and go ahead.


b. Smarika said, " I will meet you tomorrow, friends.”

Simrika said that she would meet her friends the following day.


c. “I can't come to school tomorrow,” Chandani said.

Chandani said that she couldn't come to school the following day.


d. Dorje said, “Sorry, I cannot lend you any money today.”

Dorje said that he couldn't lend me any money that day and apologised for it.

Dorje apologised for lending me money that day.


e. The teacher said, “Now, you can solve the remaining problems yourselves.”

The teacher said that we could solve the remaining problems ourselves then.


f. The police said, “The incident probably took place yesterday.”

The police said that the incident probably had taken place the previous day.


g. I said to him, “I live in Changunarayan these days.”

I told him that I lived in Changunarayan those days.


h. They said to us, “We would like to join you too.”

They told us that they would like to join us too.


i. The Science teacher said, “The coal gives off thick smoke.”

The Science teacher said that the coal gave off thick smoke.


j. Resham said, “I have never seen such a strange animal anywhere else.”

Resham said that he had never seen such a strange animal anywhere else.


k. “I love my children more than wealth,” the father said.

The father said that he loved his children more than wealth.

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Writing II

Write a letter to the Mayor of your municipality or the Chairperson of your rural municipality requesting him/her to involve the representatives of children in the decision making process related to children's issues in your municipality/rural municipality.

Answer:

Date: 2023-04-21

Tekanpur: 6

Tripura Sundari Rural Municipality 

Sindhupalchok (Nepal)


Respected Sir

I'm so glad to know about your new programme for the decision-making process regarding children's issues in our municipality. I became quite delighted to read about this programme in the local newspaper on the last day. I think this is a very fine way to know various issues of children in our municipality. 


I'm a student in grade 10 at Kalika Secondary School of Tekanpur 6. I have been actively participating in children-related programmes at my school. In our municipality's schools, some quite active students are still working actively for the welfare of children in different areas of our municipality. Every Friday they move in their fieldwork for different data collection regarding children and their various issues.


I would like to make my humble request to you to involve the representatives of these children in the decision-making process related to children's issues in our rural municipality. As they know different aspects of children, I think these school students are able to perform well as representatives and make decisions for the welfare of all the children of our rural municipality. 

Hoping for your kind response.


Yours Sincerely 

Anil Bohara

Class 10

Tekanpur 6

Sindhupalchok (Nepal)




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UNIT 2: FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS




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