Unit: 2 Class 10 English: Festivals and Celebrations | Battle of the Oranges | Neb English Notes


Unit: 2 Class 10 English: Festivals and Celebrations | Battle of the Oranges | Neb English Notes
Neb English Notes 

Unit: 2 Class 10: Festivals and Celebrations | Battle of the Oranges | Neb English Notes

Unit: 2 Class 10: Festivals and Celebrations

Reading I

Answer the following questions.

a. What is the man in the picture doing?


The man in the picture is playing in carnival of battle of oranges. Here in the picture, he is being hit by orange on his head.

b. Which is your favourite festival? Tell to the class about it.


My favourite festival is holi. It is the festival of colours. I enjoy a lot in holi along with my friends.

Battle of the Oranges 

Match the words with their meaning.


a. mush 》iii. a soft thick mass or mixture

b. jerk 》v. to make something move with a

sudden short sharp movement

c. concussion 》vi. a temporary loss of consciousness

d. hurl 》 i. to throw something violently in a

particular direction

e. pulp 》vii. the soft part inside the fruits and


f. clutch 》ii. to hold something tightly

g. sip 》 iv. to drink something, taking a very

small amount each time

B. Write 'True' for true statements and 'False' for false ones.


a. The tourists are informed to wear a red hat through public notices.


b. Aranceri seem dressed in Doctor Whoesque costumes.


c. When a cart approaches, aranceri run away from the square.


d. The narrator feels bored during the festival period.


e. The volunteers encourage the visitors to join the battle.


f. The narrator accepts Massi's offer.


C. Answer the following questions.

a. What does the red hat symbolize?


The red hat symbolizes the carnival itself and also freedom. During Roman times, red hats were worn by freed slaves. And in the Middle Ages, these were worn by peasants while fighting against feudal lords.

b. How does the narrator feel when she wipes her face?


The narrator feels amazed and even fearful when she wipes her face. When she is hit on her forehead, she supposes the substance as blood and thinks of the urgent need for stitches. 

c. What does the square look like after an hour- battle of the oranges?


After an hour-battle of the oranges, the square is covered in a thick sludge, mixture of orange pulp and horse manure. It smells sharp, sweet and sour.

d. How do aranceri members chase the cart?


Aranceri members chase the cart by following it and bombarding it with oranges.

e. Does Silvia enjoy this carnival? Why?


Yes, Silvia enjoys this carnival because carnival is the moment for that they wait all the year and it is good for their psychological health.

f. Why does Massi say, "Forget the nets"?


Massi says "Forget the nets"  because he believes that if one wants to get the true experience of carnival, he/she has to be in the middle of the battle without caring protective nets.

D. You might know about some unique festivals like 'Battle of the Oranges’. Strange festivals are celebrated in many parts of the world. Collect some information about anyone of such festivals and share in the class.


South Korean "The Boryeong Mud Festival"

The Boryeong Mud Festival is so popular event in South Korea. The festival includes the attractions like bouncy castles, slides, football fields, and mud-filled inflatable prisons.

Boryeong, in South Chungcheong Province, immerses itself in the restorative qualities of its natural sea mud every year. Mineral-rich mud from the Boryeong mud flats is transported to Daecheon Beach and used to construct mud baths, mud slopes, and mud pools. The total fun is made here in this muddy area.

Boryeong Mud Festival is a wonderful summer festival that transforms the sleepy seaside town into a mud playground. Because of the K-pop and EDM sound that creates a celebratory environment, the festival is a perfect spot to have some fun and cool off in the ocean. The event is especially well-known for its opening and closing ceremonies, which feature major musical acts, fireworks, and celebrations.

Boryeong Mud Festival was conducted for the first time in the year 1998 especially to showcase the benefits of the particular area's natural mud. Since then, the festival's size and popularity have nearly increased, with over 2 million visitors from all over the world attending.

The Boryeong Mud Festival was established to promote cosmetics made from the area's mud. According to the event's organizers, Boryeong mud is rich in minerals such as germanium and bentonite, and it emits substantial amounts of far-infrared radiation, which is beneficial to the skin. The beachside celebration, on the other hand, quickly attracts any attention paid to the mud beauty benefits.


Listen to your teacher. Find the number of syllables in each word. And note which of the syllables is stressed. One has been done for you.

Words      Number of syllables    Stressed syllable 

retreat                two                  second

concussion       three                second

opponent          three                second

succession       three                second

explode             two                   second

celebration        four                 third

consciousness three               first

liberty                 three               first



Grammar I

A. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. The beginning of each sentence is given.

a. "Are you working tonight?"

Agaman asked Timothy ..................

Agaman asked Timothy if/ whether he was working tonight.

b. "Is this the road to the station?"

A stranger wanted to know from me ..................

A stranger wanted to know from me if/whether that was the road to the station. 

c. "Did you do your homework?"

My friend inquired her..........................

My friend inquired her if/whether she had done her homework. 

d. "Have you been to Paris?"

The tourist was asked.................

The tourist was asked If/whether he had been to Paris.

e. “How long have you been working in this company?”

Usha inquired of Anju.............................

Usha inquired of Anju how long she had been working in that company.

f. “What flavour ice cream did you have at the party?”

My mother asked me ...........................

My mother asked me what flavour ice cream I had had at the party.

g. "Have you studied reported speech before?"

The teacher wanted to know..................

The teacher wanted to know if/whether I had studied reported speech before.

h. “Where will you stay tonight?”

I asked him..........................

I asked him where he would stay tonight.

i. “How many players were shown yellow card by the referee?”

Sumangal asked his friend..................

Sumangal asked his friend how many players had been shown yellow card by the referee.

j. “What magic did the medicine have on the patient?”

Sarita wanted to know from  Sommaya...........................

Sarita wanted to know from Sommaya what magic the medicine had had on the patient.

B. Change the following remarks into reported speech.

a. Kritika asked me, "Why did you go out last night?"

Kritika asked me why I had gone out the previous night.

b. "Who was that beautiful woman, Usha?" said Sunita.

Sunita asked Usha who that beautiful woman had been.

c. "How is your mother?" said Gaurab to Yang Dolma.

Gaurab asked Yang Dolma how her mother was.

d. My friend wanted to know, "What are you going to do at the weekend?"

My friend wanted to know what I was going to do at the weekend. 

e. "Where will you live after graduation?" said my teacher.

My teacher asked me where I would live after graduation. 

f. Anusha said to Melisha, "What were you doing when I saw you?"

Anusha asked Melisha what she had been doing when she had seen her.

g. I said to the pilgrim, "How was the journey?"

I asked the pilgrim how the journey had been.

h. "How often do you go to cinema?" said Krishna.

Krishna asked how often I went to cinema. 

i. "Do you live in Patan?" said the Principal.

The principal asked if/whether I lived in Patan.

j. Niraj said to Luniva, "Did Phadindra arrive on time?"

Niraj asked Luniva if/whether Phadindra had arrived on time.

Writing I

Write an essay describing a festival which is celebrated in your community. Include its brief history, people involved, major activities, religious or social importance, duration, and drawbacks, if any.


              Community Festival: Gaura

Nepal is a small but beautiful country. This country is the land of festivals and quite rich in culture and tradition.  In Nepal, many local festivals are celebrated by a particular caste or community at a particular place.  The festivals are divided into two categories as local festivals and national festivals. Local festivals differ from national festivals.  National festivals are celebrated by all the people all over the country like Dashain, Tihar etc.  But the local festivals are not the festivals of all the people.  Among local festivals, Gaura is one of the local festivals.  Gaura is one of the most popular religious festivals celebrated in the month of Bhadra by the people of the far western region of Nepal. Gaura is mainly related to the marriage of Lord Shiva and Parbati (Gaura). During this festival, local people from their community, culturally perform the wedding ceremony of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parbati according to Hindu culture. During this festival, women stay fasting, clean their houses and take baths to purify themselves. They wash the total mixture of grains in pure water and make Biruda. After the sixth day, women wash the Biruda again in fresh and pure water. They gather around Tulsi Matha and do the Balu Pooja. On the seventh day, people along with musical instruments go to their field and take some paddy plants. The plants are wrapped in a silk cloth which is regarded as Gaura. With musical procession, people bring the particular Gaura into the Mukhiya's house where the Pooja takes place. Everybody performs Pooja. Thus marriage between Shiva & Gaura almost finishes on this day, The eighth day is the most important day of this festival. On this day, people worship Dubo and they wear the sacred thread, which is called "Dubo Dhago". In the evening time, Biruda is fried in ghee and is distributed as praised to the people who are present there. They sing different cultural and religious songs in honour of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parbati. At night, women particularly elderly ones of the house worship the male members of the family in the hope of their good health and prosperity.

The next morning, singing the song of Gaura, people take Gaura to the river and an emersion ceremony takes place. In this particular festival, the women who get a chance to perform the Gaura Pooja, are considered religious and successful women. It is believed that their family will always remain successful, happy, healthy and prosperous.

Reading II

Answer the following questions.

a. What are the main festivals celebrated in your community?


The main festivals celebrated in my community are as follows:

▪︎  Dashain 

▪︎  Tihar

▪︎  Holi

▪︎  Shivratri

b. Why are they celebrated? Discuss.


They are celebrated because they are the main festivals of all Hindus. They provide us with a feeling of joy, recreation and cultural connection. 

Thanksgiving around the World

A. The meanings of some of the words from the text are given below. Find the words and write against the correct meanings.

a. in a way occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or steady ........................


b. to remind people of an important event or person from the past ....................................


c. in a way that shows the usual qualities or features of a particular type of person or thing.........


d. a curved shape that is wide in the middle and pointed at each end ...................


e. full of life and energy .......................


f. a person who is having fun in a noisy way, usually with a group of other people .........................


g. from or in another country; seeming exciting and unusual.....................


h. to spread through and be easy to notice ...............


i. brightly coloured and likely to attract attention.................


j. done quickly and with a lot of activity, but . very well organized ..........


The following events represent different activities observed during Thanksgiving around the world. Study them carefully and write the names of countries where they are celebrated.

a. Families gather for a feast in the evening accompanied by dancing and singing.


b. People wear new clothes and get community blessings.


c. Palm nut soup, fish and traditional Kpokoi are served.


d. People return to their hometowns to celebrate the festival.

》South Korea 

e. Celebrants go to the beach in a noisy way.


f. Parades are taken out in the streets.

》the USA

g. Food and wine are offered to the forefathers.

》South Korea

C. Answer the following questions.

a. What is the main feature of American Thanksgiving?


The main feature of American Thanksgiving is a feast (a very large meal) especially dinner with family. Thanksgiving is celebrated as a national holiday on the 4th Thursday of November. Families enjoy their dinner with varieties of dishes. Roasted turkeys are essential in the feast. On this particular day, large parades are taken out in the streets.

b. What do parades include in Thanksgiving in America?


Parades in Thanksgiving in America include local marching band, parade floats and huge balloons, usually based on cartoon characters, current Broadway shows and other topical themes.

c. When and why is Chuseok celebrated in Korea?


Chuseok is celebrated in Korea on the 15th day of August, according to the lunar calendar. It is celebrated to commemorate the fall harvest and honour one's ancestors.

d. How did Thanksgiving begin in Brazil?


Thanksgiving began in Brazil by the former Brazilian President, Gasper Dutra. When he visited the USA, he was fascinated with the holiday and established this festival in his home country in 1949.

e. Who started Thanksgiving in Liberia? Why was it started?


Liberated American slaves started Thanksgiving in Liberia. It was started to give thanks for their freedom, celebrate good things in their life and even mark their troubled past.

f. What is Thanksgiving celebrated in Barbados for?


Thanksgiving or Crop Over is celebrated in Barbados for marking the end of sugar cane harvest.

g. What is Homowo marked in Ghana?


Homowo is marked as the end of a long famine in Ghana. The Ghanaians suffered from it in the past.

D. How do people extend their gratitude for food and harvest in your community? Share with your friends.




Grammar ll

A. Rewrite the following sentences choosing the correct alternative from brackets.

a. Sujita asked her mother....... (when her father would come home, when will her father come home, when might her father come home).

when her father would come home

b. She replied that she had never had caviar when I said to her, ".....................caviar?” (Have you ever had, Will you have, Would you have)

Have you ever had

c. The salesperson said to him, “What........... for you?” (I can do, can I do, I could do)

can I do

d. The tourist inquired from me ........ to Banepa. (whether I belonged, whether I would belong, whether I am belonging)

whether I belonged

e. The little girl asked us what time ...... to come back. (were we supposed, we were supposed, we had been supposed)

we were supposed

f. The head teacher asked her ........ the exam form the week before. (whether she had filled out, whether she fills out, whether had she filled out)

whether she had filled out

g. Renuka asked me......... her. (if I have called, if I had called, if had I called)

if I had called

B. Nihar Chaudhary interviewed her Social Studies teacher last week. Here is the report prepared by her after the interview. Read it carefully and list out direct questions asked by Nihar.

Today, I got an opportunity to interview Mr. Sudeep Prasad Joshi, our Social Studies teacher about a Newari tradition known as Thi. Here is a brief report of the information imparted to me.

Mr. Joshi stated that Thi is a Newari ceremony in which pre-adolescent girls are married to the Suvarna Kumar, a symbol of god Vishnu. I asked him why it was done. He said that it is done to ensure that the girl becomes and remains fertile. It was started to escape the Sati tradition. According to the tradition, when a girl was married to Vishnu, she would not be a widow even after the death of her mortal husband. He added that it is performed to the girls between the ages five to nine. It is known as Bel Bibaha (Thi) because when a girl was married to Lord Vishnu, bel (wood apple) fruit was given as a witness. Mr. Joshi explained why this particular fruit chosen was because of its peculiar quality of not getting rotten. Because of this property, bel is considered as Divya Purusha or incarnation of the god. He said that the ritual goes on for two consecutive days, which is tiring for the girl and her parents. During the ceremony, those participating could not eat certain foods or drinks, especially those with salt.


"Why was it done?"

Writing Il

A. Write a news story using the following clues.

Vitamin A Capsules Given to Children

health assistants give Vitamin A Capsules, October 19-20

children from six months to five years

deworming tablets to children between 1-5 years

announced by the Department of Health Services

Vitamin A programme continues since 2050 BS and deworming capsules since 2056 BS


Vitamin A Capsules & Deworming Tablets Given to Children 

Sindhupalchok Post

21st  October 

On October 19 and 20, vitamin A capsules and deworming tablets were effectively administered to children in the village of Tekanpur. This programme was announced by the Department of Health Services a few days earlier. According to the Department of Health Services, the Vitamin A programme began since 2050 BS and deworming capsules since 2056 BS in our country. Vitamin A capsules had been given to children from six months to five years and deworming tablets to children between 1-5 years. The health assistants of our health post visited every single house in this village and provided both Vitamin A capsules and deworming tablets to the right children. The task of providing tablets and capsules was done according to their data collection. The task of providing vitamin A capsules and deworming tablets was done successfully.

Extra bit

Word Stress

Stress is an extra force used when pronouncing a particular word or syllable.

The rules of word stress

1: A word of one syllable has stress on the first letter, e.g. 'Do, 'Pot, 'Song, 'Read.

2. Nouns and most adjectives and adverbs of two syllables have stress on the first syllable, e.g. FA-ther, HAP-py, UN-der, PRES-ent.

3. A verb of two syllables has stress on the second syllable, e.g. cor-RECT, pre-SENT,be-LIEVE.

4. Most three-syllable nouns and adjectives have stress on the first syllable (except words with long vowel sound: engiNEER), e.g. POL-i-tics, GEN-er-al, DEL-i-cate, EX-cel-lent.

5. Three-syvllable verbs have stress on the first syllable (except words with prefixes: reMEMber, conTINue), e.g. OR-gan-ize, DEC —o-rate, SIG-ni-fy.

6. Words that end in -cy, -ty, -phy and —gy have stress on the third-from-last syllable. e.g. de-MOC- ra-cy, un-CER-tain-ty.

7. Compound nouns have stress on the first part, e.g. HAIR-brush, SOME-thing, CLASS-room, BREAK-fast, FOOT-ball.



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