Unit 4 Class 10 English: Work and Leisure | Cabbage White | Neb English Notes


Unit 4 Class 10 English: Work and Leisure | Cabbage White | Neb English Notes
Neb English Notes 

Unit 4 Class 10 Work and Leisure | Cabbage White | Neb English Notes

Unit 4 Work and Leisure

Reading I

Answer the following questions.

a. How do you often spend your leisure?


I spend my leisure by doing my interesting tasks.

b. Why do you think it is necessary to keep a balance between work and leisure?


I think it is necessary to keep a balance between work and leisure because this balance keeps us active and joyous all the time.

Cabbage White

 A. Match the following meanings in the left column with the correct words in the right.


a. to laugh at somebody in an unkind way vii. mock 

b. very unpleasant v. hideous

c. to twist and turn body or part of it with quick, short movements viii. wriggle 

d. in a cheerful way vi. gaily 

e. very surprised or shocked iii.  open-mouthed

f. to ask for something in a serious and emotional way ii. plead

g. to make a facial expression indicating disapproval i. frown

h. to argue or disagree strongly with somebody iv. dispute

B. The word tiptoe refers to the way of walking with one's heels off the ground, in order to make them taller or to move very quietly. Consult a dictionary and find the meanings of the following words related to walking.

sneak  stroll  lurch  stagger  stride  stumble



To creep or go stealthily; to come or go while trying to avoid detection, as a person who does not wish to be seen.


To wander on foot; to ramble idly or leisurely; to rove.


To make such a sudden, unsteady movement.


In standing or walking, to sway from one side to the other as if about to fall; to stand or walk unsteadily; to reel or totter.


To walk with long steps.


To trip or fall; to walk clumsily.



C. Answer these questions.

a. Why do you think the man frowned his face when Sarah and Jamie gave him their school card?


I think the man frowned his face when Sarah and Jamie gave him their school card because they were quite small and looking for work instead of going to school. 

b. Why were Sarah and Jamie looking for a job instead of going to school?


Sarah and Jamie were looking for a job instead of going to school because both wanted to earn money during their holiday and support their parents.

c. Why was the man ready to give them work in his farm?


The man was ready to give them work in his farm because he required someone to eliminate all the caterpillars from the cabbages.

d. What work were they supposed to do at the man's farm?


At the man's farm, they were supposed to check every single cabbage and eliminate all the caterpillars by picking them off and collecting them in pails.

e. Were there really a million or billion caterpillars in the cabbage field? If not, what do Sarah and Jamie mean by a million or billion caterpillars?


No, there were not really a million or billion caterpillars in the cabbage field. By a million or billion caterpillars, Sarah and Jamie mean that there were so many caterpillars on the cabbage farm. 

f. What were Sarah and Jamie desperate about?


Sarah and Jamie were desperate about the tough and hideous job of eliminating all the caterpillars from the cabbages.

g. What was Sarah's ‘brilliant’ idea?


Sarah's "brilliant" idea was to get rid of the butterflies first, so there won't be any more eggs or caterpillars in the cabbage farm.

h. Were the children happy with their work? Give reasons for your answer.


Yes, the children were happy with their work. Though the task of collecting caterpillars and killing butterflies was so tough, unpleasant and tiresome, they looked satisfied at the end and admired each other's tasks.

i. Why did they run away from the farm secretly?


They ran away from the farm secretly because there was no cabbage left standing. During their task, they destroyed the entire cabbage farm and became fearful about the further consequences. 

D. Read the story and write 'True' for true statements, and 'False' for false ones. If the information is not given in the text write Not Given’.

a. Sarah and Jamie's parents were unable to work to support the family.

》Not Given 

b. Sarah and Jamie have never been to school.


c. The man decides to pay them upon the completion of their work.


d. Sarah and Jamie had not expected to find so many caterpillars in the cabbage field.


e. Sarah's idea finally worked to finish off their job.


f. They were caught by the farm owner while running away.


E. Act out  the story in the class.


Pronounce the words correctly with the help of your teacher and put them in the correct column below on the basis of the pronunciation of vowels in red.

stood  their support plead beautiful

afraid hideous seemed lay gaily

ground exhausted tiptoe bamboo pail

Short vowel  





Long vowel 





Vowel combination








Grammar I

A. Read the story below and tell what the underlined words are used for.

A Heron was walking sedately along the bank of a river. All he could see on the clear water was a little fish. "This might be a good breakfast for me," thought the Heron. Suddenly his eyes fell upon a big octopus passing by. "Master Heron should not be happy with such a tiny fish," he said to himself. "I wouldn't even trouble to open my beak for anything like that while I may have a lovely dinner. But I must play a trick on the octopus or it will escape.” The fish and the octopus were smarter than the Heron. They swam into the depths  of the river and disappeared. The poor Heron had to be content for breakfast on a tiny Snail.


could: 'could' is used for expressing ability.

might: 'might'is used for expressing possibility

should: 'should' is used for expressing suggestion

wouldn't: 'wouldn't' is used for expressing a negative conditional

may: 'may' is used for expressing possibility

must: 'must' is used for expressing obligation 

had to: 'had to' is used for expressing past obligation



B. Complete the sentences below with the correct words given below.

a. This............. be Safal's coat. It is too small for him.


b. ............you please tell me the way to the airport?


c. ..............you like to stay with us at the weekend?


d. Do you know where Jack is? He............. be in his office.


e. The sky is overcast. It ............. rain in the afternoon.


f. Sanam has been working in the field all day. She.............be tired.


g. The film is really wonderful. You .......... see it at least once.


C. Complete the sentences below with must or can't in the blank spaces.

a. The man is looking around. He ........ be lost.


b. He..............be a doctor. He has not studied medicine.


c. Sushmita failed the test although she is a smart student. She......... have prepared well this time.


d. The restaurant always serves really good food. They...........have employed excellent chefs.


e. There ..............be something wrong with the fan. It is making an unusual sound.


f. This.......... be Sumana's book. There is a stamp of the library on it.


g. He...............have had hard times. He has lost his job and has to support his elderly parents.


Writing I

A. The following text is a job application letter for the post of School Secretary. But some sentences are written in wrong order. Put them in the correct order and rewrite the application.


Bhanu-10, Tanahun

18 August

The Headteacher,

Shree Janajagriti Secondary School,

Bhanu 10, Tanahun

Subject: Job application for the position of School Secretary

Dear Sir,

Iam writing to apply for the position of School Secretary that was recently advertised on The Tanahun Post. lam a young girl of 20. I possess all the skills and qualifications that you are looking for. After my SLC I worked as an office secretary for a year at Himalayan Investment Company Limited. Moreover, I possess good skills of handling a wide range of tasks at the institution.

As an experienced secretary, I have a proven record of successfully managing the administrative and secretarial duties. I also possess sound skills of spoken and written English besides the Nepali language. I have enclosed the copies of my relevant credentials required for the position.

I have a keen interest to work with students and support their academics. If I am appointed as the secretary in your school, I will provide excellent customer service. I look forward to working with your team. I am confident that I can be a valuable asset to your school.


Pabitra Nepali

Read the following advertisement carefully and write a letter of job application for the advertised post. Consider yourself to be eligible for the post you want to apply.


A well established & progressive Electronics & Home Appliances company requires motivated and skilled professional for the post of Marketing Manager, Marketing Executive and Accountant.

Location: Kathmandu

Number of Vacancies: 03

Salary: Negotiable


* Bachelor's degree in management from recognized university,

* Minimum 2 years of experience in related field. (i.e. Accounting and financial reporting and tax and VAT system for accountant) (Sales and marketing planning, projection report and reporting)

* Should have Computer Literacy in Words, Excel and other management software with commanding in English and Nepali Language.

* 2 wheeler driving license will be an added advantages for the candidate.

Applying Procedure: Curriculum Vitae (CV) to [email protected]scan copy of citizenship. Deadline: 15 April, 2020.

Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted for Interview. The decision of Company will be final.


To the Manager

R K Electronics & Home Appliances 


Subject: An application for the vacant post of Accountant 

Respected Sir,

                       I put forward this piece of a written application in your table especially to apply for the vacant post of Accountant in your company. I came to know about this vacant post from Kantipur Post, a daily newspaper in Nepal. I have attached all the required academic as well as other documents' photocopies for this vacant post along with this hand-written application. 

I'm an energetic and qualified guy of 32 years old. I have passed the bachelor level with a good percentage from one of the reputed Universities of Pokhara. In the matter of language, I'm quite fluent in both English and Nepali languages. I have even five years of working experience as an accountant in the K.D. Company of Pokhara. I pose a certificate of basic computer and a driving license. I think I'm the right candidate for this post.

If I get the chance to work as an Accountant in your company, I won't let you a chance of complaint. I will try my best for the development of this company. 

Looking forward to your kind response. 

Yours sincerely 

Hari Sapkota

Reading ll

A. Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions.

a. What are the people in pictures doing?

b. Why are they doing these activities?

c. Who, do you think, is better at serving the god? Why?

Leave this Chanting and Singing

Leave this chanting and singing and telling of beads!

Whom dost thou worship in this lonely dark corner of a temple with doors all shut?

Open thine eyes and see thy God is not before thee!

He is there where the tiller is tilling the hard ground and where the pathmaker is breaking stones.

He is with them in sun and in shower, and his garment is covered with dust.

Put off thy holy mantle and even like him come down on the dusty soil!


Where is this deliverance to be found?

Ourmaster himself has joyfully taken upon him the bonds of creation; he is bound with us all forever.

Come out of thy meditations and leave aside thy flowers and incense!

What harm is there if thy clothes become tattered and stained?

Meet him and stand by him in toil and in sweat of thy brow.

- Rabindranath Tagore

A. Find the words from the poem which have the following meanings.

a. a small piece of glass or stone threaded with others to make a necklace ..................


b. to prepare and use land for growing crops ..........................


c. a piece of clothing ..................


d. a layer of something that covers a surface .................


e. the state of being rescued from danger, evil or pain ...............


f. a substance that produces a pleasant smell when you burn ..............it 


g. covered with marks ..............................


h. hard unpleasant work that makes you very tired ................................


B. Find the modern equivalents of the following archaic words used in the poem.

a. dost b. thou c. thine d. thy

a. dost do

b. thou you

c. thine yours

d. thy you



C. Answer the following questions.

a. Who is the poem addressed to?


The poem is addressed to those religious people who engage themselves in chanting, singing, and telling beads in the temples with closed doors. 

b. What does the speaker advise people?


The speaker advises the people to give up traditional forms of worship such as chanting, singing and performing rituals inside temples. Instead, they should identify the divine presence in the daily activities of common people. For example: In the hard work of farmers and labourers.

c. Where do people try to find the god?


People try to find the god in a lonely dark corner of the temples as well as other sacred places of worship. 

d. Where, according to the speaker, does the god actually reside?


According to the speaker, god actually resides among those common people such as tillers (farmers) and pathmakers who engage themselves in everyday hard work.

e. How can people have a glimpse of the god?


People can have a glimpse of god by identifying the divine presence in everyday life, by opening their eyes and seeing the god in the works of others.

f. Why can't the god rescue people?


The god can't rescue people because god is also bound up in the same struggles similar to human beings, taking on the "bonds of creation" along with everyone else forever.

g. What does the speaker ask people to do in the last stanza?


In the last stanza, the speaker asks people to give up their meditations, leave aside their flowers and incense, and join the god in the toil and sweat of everyday work. He also suggests to people that there shouldn't be any harm if their clothes become tattered and stained, but rather they should meet god who stands by them in toil and sweat.

D. Do you believe in the existence of god? What do you do to please him? Share your opinion.


Yes, I believe in the existence of god. I have a keen faith in god. This entire universe is continuously moving, all the creatures are surviving on this planet because there is something mysterious power. For me this mysterious power itself is god. I believe that god is the main source of love and compassion. He is the one and only protectors of this universe. His might is beyond our imagination. He is present in every tiny thing. His knowledge is unlimited and his power itself is great. For me, god is the one who is behind every logic. To please god, I never move up to the temples and worship. God is within us so I recite his name most time. In case of my mistakes, I make apologies in my mind in the name of god.

Grammar ll

A. Match the following imperative sentences with their functions.


Sentences                                Functions

a. Kindly tell me where the bus park is. viii. making a request

b. Go straight and take the first turn on your right.  i. giving direction

c. Cook the rice in medium heat until it turns tender. vi. giving instructions 

d. Please join us on the tour. vii. making an invitation

e. Don't feed the animals in the zoo! ii. warning

f. Wear warm clothes.  iv. giving advice

g. Put your hands up! iii. making a command

h. Get out of here at once.  v. making an order.

g. Let's go for a walk. ix. suggesting

B. Change the following imperative sentences into negative.

a. Turn left at the junction.

Don't left at the junction. 

b. Please open the door.

Please don't open the door.

c. Let him tell a story.

Don't let him tell a story.

d. Put out the light.

Don't put out the light.

e. Let's play a friendly football match.

Let's not play a friendly football match. 

f. Please help the man get out of well.

Please don't help the man get out of well.

g. Instruct the people about how they should work.

Don't instruct the people about how they should work.

Writing Il

A. Study the following notice.

            Government of Nepal

Ministry of Forest and Environment

Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation

            Chitwan National Park

                  Kasara, Chitwan

Rules and Regulations for the Visitors

1. An entry fee of NRs. 1500/- (Foreigners), NRs. 750/- (SAARC), and NRs. 100/- (Nepali) per person has to be paid at the Park's Entrance Gate.

2. Flora and Fauna of the park are fully protected and must not be disturbed at any cost.

3. Do not purchase illegal animal or plant products. The purchase of illegal animal or plant product may bring vou to the legal prosecution.

4. The visitors of the park must respect the religious and cultural sites all around the park.

5. The visitors are required to place the trash in the rubbish bins and should care about the cleanliness.

6. The visitors are strictly prohibited to walk within the park between sunset and sunrise.

Thank you!

B. Write a set of rules and regulations for the visitors in the following places. You may use the expressions given below.

Following structures can be used for writing rules and regulations:

1. Sub + is/am/are (not) allowed to + v1 + obj.

2. Sub + is/am/are prohibited/forbidden to + v1 + obj.

3. Sub + must/can (not) + v1 + obj.

4. Sub + should (not) + v1 +obj.

5. Sub + is/am/are (not) permitted to + v1 + obj.

6. Sub + is/am/are expected to + v1 + obj.

7. ............. is/are strictly forbidden.

8. If anyone acts against rules and regulations, he/she may be v3.

a. Library     b. Hospital 


a. Library

Following are the rules and regulations to be followed by the visitors in the library.

1. Visitors are not allowed to make noise in the library.

2. Smoking is strictly prohibited in library. 

3. Visitors mustn't fight in the library. 

4. Visitors should ask for books to the librarians. 

5. Visitors are not permitted to take books to their homes. 

6. Visitors are expected to maintain peaceful environment in the library.

b. Hospital

Following are the set of rules and regulations that are to be followed by the visitors in the hospital. 

1. Visitors aren't allowed to disturb patients in the hospital. 

2. Alcoholic beverages are strictly prohibited in the hospital. 

3. Visitors mustn't make noise in the wards.

4. They should be clean and tidy in the hospital. 

5. They shouldn't fight in the hospital.

6. If anyone acts against rules and regulations of the hospital, he/she may be fined according to the hospital's rules.



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