Unit 9 Class 10 English: History and Culture | Pratap Malla | Neb English Notes


Neb English Notes

Unit 9 Class 10 English: History and Culture | Pratap Malla | Neb English Notes 

Unit 9 Class 10 English: History and Culture

Reading I

Look at the picture below and answer these questions.

a. Who is the man in this statue?


The man in this statue is Pratap Malla.

b. What do you know about him?


Pratap Malla was a Malla king and the eighth king of Kantipur from 1641 until his death in 1674.  He attempted to unify the Kathmandu Valley by conquering Lalitpur and Bhaktapur, but was unsuccessful in the attempt.  He was successful in expanding and securing the borders of Kantipur and was responsible for the monopoly of trade with Tibet.

Pratap Malla

A. Complete the following sentences with the correct words from the text.

a. Queen Rajendra Laxmi ruled the country as a..............because her son Rana Bahadur Shah was too young.


b. Many buildings were ........... as they were destroyed by the earthquake.


c. Many temples had their ........... made of gold.


d. As the original trophy was stolen, they made the exact .............of it.


e. Madhav Prasad Ghimire was ............ the title 'Rastrakavi' in 2003.


f. The government ............ Jhamak Kumari Ghimire for her contribution to Nepali literature.


g. The British soldiers tried to ............ Nepal but the brave Nepali people chased them away.


B. Choose the best alternative.

a. Why did Pratap Malla keep his father in jail?

i. Pratap Malla was insane.

ii. Pratap Malla wanted to be the king soon.

iii. Pratap Malla's father was insane.

iv. Pratap Malla had no experience of administration.

iii. Pratap Malla's father was insane.

b. What made Kantipur a strong state during Pratap Malla's reign?

i. Pratap Malla's bravery

ii. Pratap Malla's diplomacy

iii. Pratap Malla's love for poetry

iv. Pratap Malla's love for art and culture

ii. Pratap Malla's diplomacy

c. Which of the following was not renovated by Pratap Malla?

i.  Pashupatinath

ii. Temple of Taleju

iii. Temple of Degutale

iv. Temple of Budhanilkantha

iv. Temple of Budhanilkantha

d. According to the text, which of the following did not happen during Pratap Malla's reign?

i. Trade with India and China

ii. Promotion of art and culture

iii. Invasion of Kantipur

iv. Presence of learned men at the palace

iii. Invasion of Kantipur

C. Answer these questions.

a. Name two countries that had trade with Kantipur.


Two countries that had trade with Kantipur were India and China.

b. How did Pratap Malla keep his kingdom safe from Lalitpur and Bhaktapur?


Pratap Malla kept his kingdom safe from Lalitpur and Bhaktapur by making proper use of his tact. He made the kings of Lalitpur and Bhaktapur play against each other. Sometimes he took the side of Bhaktapur and threatened Lalitpur, and sometimes he took the side of Lalitpur and attacked Bhaktapur.

c. Where did Pratap Malla place the image of Lord Hanuman? Why?


Pratap Malla placed the image of Lord Hanuman by the side of his palace gate and called the palace Hanumandhoka. He did so to ward off (to prevent) evils.

d. Pratap Malla conferred himself with the title 'Kabeendra. Do you think this title suit him? Give reasons.


Pratap Malla conferred himself with the title 'Kabeendra,' which means "a king of poets." Yes, I think this title suits him as he was a vastly- learned king and a poet. He had knowledge of various languages and could compose poems in various languages such as Sanskrit, Nepal Bhasa, Nepali, Bengali, and Hindi.

e. Pratap Malla used to invite the intellectuals at his palace. What does this indicate about his personality as a king?


Pratap Malla used to invite the intellectuals at his palace. As a king, this indicates that he was a personality who greatly respected and patronized the scholars of his time.  He was interested in learning and promoting arts and literature.



D. Pratap Malla contributed a lot to Nepali culture during his reign. Can you name some of them which still exist?


Pratap Malla contributed a lot to Nepali culture during his reign. Yes, I can name some of his contributions which still exist. These contributions are as follows.

▪︎ He built a beautiful temple at Guhyeshwari and fenced it.

▪︎ He renovated the temple of the Pashupatinath and raised a pinnacle over it.

▪︎  He constructed several temples and buildings, notably Pratappur and Kabindrapur, in Swayambhu and also set up a copper gilt 'Bajra'.

▪︎  He renovated the Basuki Bhimsen, Taleju, and Degutale temples.

▪︎  He erected an image of Hanuman, the monkey god, by the side of his palace gate, and named it Hanumandhoka.

▪︎  He erected the golden gate of the palace and set up an image of Nri Simha, Kal Bhairab and Vishwaroop at  Layaku Bahi.

▪︎  He set up Sundari Chowk and Mohan Chowk inside the palace.

▪︎  He ordered to dig of the pond at Bhandarkhal and installed an image of Narayan lying in the pond, which was a replica of the Budhanilakantha Temple.


Pronounce the following phrases with an apostrophe. Take help of a dictionary or your teacher. Then, put the words in the right columns.


Dick's house

my parents' wedding

Nepal's border

a week's work

Ulysses’ friends

the aircraft's black box

children's shoes


Luna's pet 

Lisa's essay

my brother's book

the girls' excitement


Ramesh's phone

Socrates’ philosophy

the ladies' room

coach's decision

Thomas's job

the bus's arrival

princess's necklace

James's office


A. Study how Aleena narrates the activities of her winter holidays.

When our school was closed for winter holidays, I was both excited and nervous. I was anxious to see my father and mother. So, I called my mother to tell her that I would be leaving for home Friday morning. The journey home went well and I saw beautiful landscapes. I reached the town at 4:30 pm and found my father and young brother waiting for me at the bus station. I was very happy to see them! Once home, I did many activities such as watering the garden and visiting my friends. I really enjoyed my winter holidays!

Now, narrate what you did during your recent holidays.


During my recent holidays, I visited Mankamana Temple along with my family members. That tour was quite memorable for me as well as my family members. We enjoyed our tour a lot. 

Our journey by bus was a joyous experience for all of us. It took us about three hours to reach this place by bus from Kathmandu. We enjoyed much to get the chance to see the scenic beauty in our surroundings. The flow of the beautiful river Trisuli made us feel good all the time. When we reached the gate of Mankamana, we felt as if our hearts is purified. The garden was outstanding there. We clicked many photos in the garden. The most interesting part of this trip was the ride on the cable car. It was much fun to have a ride on the cable car. In my case, I really felt scared and excited on my first ride. My family members encouraged me not to be afraid. When I got on the cable car, I felt tremble on my feet. When I got down, I was shocked to see the crowd of people. Mankamana temple was packed with a large number of people. Many people had come to visit Mankamana from abroad too. There were many foreign tourists. To worship Mankamana Mai, we stood in a long queue. After worshipping, we moved to a  restaurant to have our meal. We had our meal at Thapa restaurant.  After having a meal, we passed our time taking photos again. The scenery around Mankamana Temple was really awesome. We felt relaxed in that environment. That trip had really given us extreme pleasure. That trip was a worthwhile experience for me. 



B. Work in pairs. Have conversations as shown in the example.

a. Tony/go/dentist/last week


A: What did Tony do last week!

B: He went to the dentist last week.

b. Grandparents/eat ice cream/yesterday afternoon

A: What did grandparents do yesterday afternoon?

B: Grandparents ate ice cream yesterday afternoon.

c. Sima/send message/an hour ago

A: What did Sima do an hour ago?

B: Simran sent a message an hour ago.

d. Manu/wash hands/3 minutes ago

A: What did Manu do 3 minutes ago?

B: Manu washed hands 3 minutes ago.

e. Father/watch/football match/last night

A: What did father do last night?

B: Father watched a football match last night.

f.  Lunibha/feed the cat/yesterday

A: What do Lunibha do yesterday?

B: Lunibha fed the cat yesterday.

g. Kate and Tim/clean room/last weekend

A: What did Kate and Tim do last weekend?

B: Kate and Tim cleaned room last weekend. 

C. Tell about a party that you attended. Use the given guidelines.

Who invited you

Where you were invited

Why the party was organised.

Anything you offered or received.


Last night, I visited a fine birthday party organised by my friend Raju. It was his birthday so he invited me through a phone call. I was invited to a nice hotel called "Bruno Cottage Hotel" in Koteshwor. All our classmates were present there. We enjoyed Raju's birthday party the whole night singing and dancing. We provided him with different gifts. He had booked 5 rooms in that hotel. Everything was finely arranged at that party. We all were quite satisfied with the services provided by the hotel.

Grammar I

A. Find the second part of each sentence. Then, change each verb into the correct form.


a. The alarm (go) ii. while Trishna (sleep).

The alarm went while Trishna was sleeping. 

b. As soon as the teacher (ask) the question  i. Brinda (reply) her.

As soon as the teacher asked the question, Brinda replied her.

c. I (do) my homework  iv. when the telephone (ring).

I was doing my homework whe the telephone rang.

d. When the doors (open) v. the audience (rush) into the stadium.

When the doors opened, the audience rushed into the stadium. 

e. When we (wake) iii. we (see) the sun shining brightly.

When we woke, we saw the sun shining brightly. 

B. Complete the sentences. Write in the correct form of each verb.

a. When I ................. (arrive) home, my dad ..........................(prepare) snacks for me.

When I arrived home, my dad was preparing snacks for me.

b. That day, when we .............. (leave) home, the sky .........................(be) overcast and it .............. (drizzle).

That day, when we left home, the sky was overcast and it was drizzling.

c. Last week, We ............... (book) a hotel online. The hotel ............. (be) really wonderful. The staff ................... (stand) at the gate to welcome us when we .................. (reach) there.

Last week, we booked a hotel online. The hotel was really wonderful. The staff stood at the gate to welcome us when we reached there.

d. ...................... (the children/sleep) when you .................... (reach) home that night?

Were the children sleeping when you reached home that night?

e. Something very strange ........................ (happen) on my way home yesterday. I ............... (walk) along the way. Suddenly, I ............... (see) my grandfather following me. But he had died a year ago.

Something very strange happened on my way home yesterday. I was walking along the way. Suddenly, I saw my grandfather following But he had died a year ago.

f. We ................ (travel) to Chitwan when the police stopped us on the way. According to them, there ..............(be) a bomb there. So, we .......................(have) to wait for an hour.

We were traveling to Chitwan when the police stopped us on the way. According to them, there wasbomb there. So, we had to wait for an hour.

C. Make sentences using the words given in the brackets. Use the correct forms of the verbs: simple past or past continuous.

Example: the telephone/ring several times/ while I/have dinner

The telephone rang several times while I was having dinner.

a. it/ begin to snow while we/return /home

It began to snow while we were returning home.

b. Kamal/fall off while he/play on the verandah

Kamal fell off while he was playing on the verandah.

c. Amit /wait for me/ when I /reach the station

Amit was waiting for me when I reached the station.

d. Simran/ take my photos while I/not look at the camera

Simran took my photos while I was not looking at the camera.

e. what/you do/yesterday when I/call you?

What were you doing yesterday when I called you?

f. I break the glass/while I/wash it

I broke the glass while I was washing it.

g. the teacher enter the class/while some students/ dance in the class

The teacher entered the class while some students were dancing in the class.

h. I find the lost purse/while I /clean the room

I found the lost purse while I was cleaning the room.

I. Dipisha finish her homework/while her brother/ watch TV

Dipisha finished her homework while her brother was watching TV.

Writing I

A. Study the events below. These are the major events that happened in the history of Nepal from 2017 B.S. to 2046 B.S. Write a couple of paragraphs about Nepal's journey from Panchayat to Multiparty Democracy.

1st Poush, 2017 - King Mahendra dismissed the elected government, suspended parliament, imprisoned the Prime Minister, Ministers, banned political parties and activities, seized all power

22nd Poush, 2017 - King Mahendra announced the partyless autocratic Panchayat System

10th Jestha, 2036 - announcement of Referendum

20th Baishak, 2037 -the election of referendum took place

10th Jestha, 2042 - non-violent civil disobedience movement

7th Falgun, 2046 -the mass movement formally started

26th Chaitra, 2046-restoration of multiparty system


Nepal's journey from Panchayat to Multiparty Democracy was so difficult and a lot of hardships were faced by the people of Nepal. The roles of the Kings of Nepal remained quite crucial during that time. The particular journey started when the elected government was overthrown by King Mahendra on 1st Pouse, 2017, and the parliament was suspended. The Prime Minister and other cabinet ministers were also imprisoned. Political parties and activities were also outlawed. Later on, King Mahendra announced the partyless autocratic Panchayat System in Nepal on 22nd Poush, 2017.

While Nepal experienced some relative stability during this time but the situation around was seen with corruption, misuse of human rights, and dissatisfaction.

Next, King Birendra called for a referendum in the year 2036 to decide whether to create a multi-party democracy in Nepal or keep the panchayat system in place.  On the 20th  Baisakh, 2037, there held an election, and the majority of voters supported a multi-party democracy. But the king did not put the decision into action, and for the following five years, Nepal was governed under the panchayat system.

In the year 2042, several political parties, civil society organizations and student groups organized a nonviolent civil disobedience movement against the panchayat system.  The movement was initially suppressed, but as it grew stronger, the government was forced to make concessions.

The mass movement finally started formally on the 7th of Falgun, 2046 and continued for a few weeks until the king decided to restore the multi-party system on the 26th of Chaitra, 2046.

 An important moment in Nepal's history came with the restoration of multi-party democracy.  It started during an era of political liberalism, civil rights, and economic growth.  Nepal's long and arduous journey from panchayat to multi-party democracy was a monument to the perseverance of the country's residents and their desire to make their ambitions for a better future a reality.

B. Some people think studying history is just a waste of time while others think that it is essential. What do you think of these ideas? Write your opinion in about 200 words. 


I consider that everyone should learn about history. Its study is so essential for all. The appropriate understanding of life, norms and values, culture, and tradition can never be attained by those who view history as a way to pass the time.  History is a significant subject because it provides us with information about the past, present, and future.

People living in the modern time must be familiar with history.  History consistently teaches us lessons that are crucial for all of us.  History and its knowledge help to move life properly ahead. We have to try to take advantage of historical facts and act accordingly in the present. History has both positive and negative elements.  A thorough understanding of history helps us to extract its positive and helpful aspects and eliminate its negativities.  We must learn from the past and make every effort to avoid its negativities.

Learning good lessons from the past helps us pave a good path in the present.  We should take care that the bad aspects of the past are not repeated in the present.  There should be a connection between history and people.  This connection enables people to handle current situations.  If the knowledge of history is accepted and regulated, the traditionally guided aspects like culture, norms and values, and religion are also properly preserved.  Thoughtful people ignore the bad aspects of the bad past but run their life smoothly by making proper use of the good aspects of life.

History should be an inevitable part of everyone.  History always leaves important lessons for everyone. Knowing history means knowing the right way to live life in the present. Historical aspects provide knowledge that can help anyone at every step of life. We have to learn from history and bring positive changes in our present.  Thus, I believe that history must run parallel to the present for good outcomes. 

Reading Il

What do these flowers represent in your culture?

a. Night jasmine (Parijat): 

Night jasmine (Parijat) represent love, beauty, and purity. 

b. Lotus:

Lotus represents spiritual enlightenment, beauty, fertility, purity, prosperity and eternity.

c. Globe amaranth (Makhamali):

This flower represents immortality.

Flowers in Russian Culture

A. Find out the single words for the following meanings.

a strong, usually pleasant smell ...............


b. different colours of paint, especially as used by an artist................................


c. to a great degree ................................


d. lasting only a short time ......................


e. the act or process of producing children or baby animals..........................


f. enclose (something) in or as if in a capsule .................


g. a type of treatment which involves massaging the body with special fragrant oils ..................


h. causing to be kept away ...................


i. to be a sign of something that will happen in the future .....................


B. Words like gift-giving, heartwarming, cardboard, etc., are compund words. Make a list of such compound words from the text.







Lesser known 




C. Complete the sentences below with the correct information from the text.

a. People do not care which flowers they are receiving as long as the flowers are beautiful and they give ....................

a pleasant aroma

b. Flowers are gifted worldwide to express................

love and affection 

c. Following the strict flower .................. while gifting flowers in Russia saves you from offending people.


d. Red carnations symbolise............... produced by the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party of Bolsheviks.

the revolution of February 1917

e. Russian people believe that the white carnation ..................... so, we should not gift them to performers.

represents bad omens 

f. Russian people do not gift red puppy flowers to their ....................because they think if they do so their love becomes weak.

loved ones 

g. When Russians want break-up from their beloved ones they gift .......................

a bunch of yellow flowers 

h. Chamomiles have ...................... values so they can be used for the treatment of fatal diseases.

a vast range of medical 

i. We should not gift a white lily bouquet in a Russian wedding as it symbolises..................


D. Answer these questions.

a. Mention any two reasons for which people gift flowers to others.


Two reasons for which people gift flowers to others are mentioned below.

1. Flowers are a staple (necessary, basic) item in the gift-giving world.

2. Flowers are thoughtful gestures of goodwill.

b. How do people feel when they are gifted flowers?


People feel joyous, loved, and appreciated when they are gifted flowers.

c. What determines the selection of flowers for gifting in Russia?


Flower etiquette determines the selection of flowers for gifting in Russia. Gifting flowers in Russia has some unique traditions with a range of rules depending on the setting.

d. Which event in Russian history is reflected by the red carnation?


The event of the Revolution of February 1917 in Russian history by the 'Russian Social Democratic Workers Partyp' of Bolsheviks is reflected by the red carnation.

e. Does a Russian like to keep a white carnation under his/her pillow? Why?


No, a Russian does not like to keep a white carnation under his/her pillow. It is because the white carnation symbolizes death.

f. What's the reason for connecting the red poppy with fragile love?


The reason for connecting the red poppy with fragile love is that the people in Russia believe giving a red poppy as a gift to loved ones contradicts the desire for a long and healthy relationship. 

g. What makes the Russian people eat red poppy seeds in their wedding?


Traditional norms make the Russian people eat red poppy seeds in their weddings. Russian people believe that eating these seeds symbolizes happiness for a married couple.

h. Do you prefer to grow chamomile in your garden? Why?


Yes, I prefer to grow Chamomile in my garden. It is because it is a popular flower which offers a vast range of medicinal values.

i. What colour is chamomile?


Chamomile is a white flower with bright yellow centres.

j. Write the names of two flowers used for fortune telling.


The names of two flowers used for fortune-telling are chamomile and lily.

k. Which flower is mostly used in Russian weddings?


The white calla lily is mostly used in Russian weddings.

E. Do you know other flowers that are commonly used for gifting? Write the names of those flowers and the occasions on which they are gifted.


Yes, I know. Following are the flowers and the occasions on which they are gifted.

Red roses, Lilies, Tulips 》Birthday

Yellow roses, sunflowers: Wishing "Get well soon"

Daisies: Anniversary 

White roses: Friendship

Grammar ll

A. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in the brackets.

a. The children ........... five minutes ago. (arrive)


b. Ramchandra ........... the ticket before he went to the cinema. (buy)

had bought

c. Alexander ........... one-fourth of the world before he was thirty. (conquer)

had conquered 

d. When she came out of the airport, nobody ........... for her. (wait)

was waiting

e. I found a thousand rupee note in my pants pocket while I ............ it. (wash)

was washing

f. Somebody ............ at my door while I was taking a rest. (knock)


g. Every year, he ............ some money which he spent to buy a new house. (save)


h. I ....................my breakfast before I went to work. (have)

had had

i. The train ........... before we reached the station. (leave)

had left

B. Complete the story below with the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.


A young lady entered a shop in Birendranagar, Surkhet. She put a few items of food in a bag. She chose a time when not many people were there in the street. She waited for the moment when no one else would see her running away. When the shopkeeper checked the goods, she gave him a thousand-rupee note. As soon as the shopkeeper opened the box, she snatched all the money from it. Meanwhile, she had run out of the shop before the shopkeeper realised what had happen. When the shopkeeper checked the amount in the box, he found that the thief had taken only Rs. 450. As the thief had left a thousand-rupee note behind, the operation cost her Rs. 550.

Writing Il

A. Write a story using the outlines given below.

  The Bat, the Birds, and the Beasts

a great conflict between the birds and the beasts ....... two armies collected together ...... the bat refuses to join ....... says he is a beast .......... beasts request ...... says he is a bird ..... peace made, no battle ..... rejoicing ........ bat wishes to join ........... both turn against him ..... threaten to tear into pieces ...... bat flies away ............moral


     The Bat, the Birds, and the Beasts

Once upon a time in a faraway jungle, all the Birds and the Beasts declared a great conflict against each other. No compromise was possible between them. Both groups started collecting armies to fight against each other. Armies were assigned to collect additional fighters before the war. Armies from both groups moved different parts of the jungle to collect fighters. Away from the concept of war, a bat was living in his tree. When the armies of birds arrived there to ask him, he didn't show his interest in the war. He refused to join the birds' armies saying that he is a beast. Next, when armies of Beasts arrived there to request him, he refused again saying that he is a bird. He asked them to stop fighting with each other. The conflict started between them for so many days. After some time, both groups decided to leave the concept of war as there was a huge loss on either side. They made an agreement of peace and promised not to fight against each other. They started doing feasts with great rejoicing. At the time of happiness, the bat wanted to join the groups. But both groups turned against him. They didn't allow him to be part of their feasts. They threatened him to tear into pieces if they saw him near again. The bat became so upset and flew quite away from there.

Moral: Deceitful nature always invites bad results.

B. Write a story that begins with the sentence 'One warm summer afternoon an old owl was dozing when a grasshopper disturbed it with a very raspy song.’

       An Old Owl and A Grasshopper 

One warm summer afternoon an old owl was dozing when a grasshopper disturbed it with a very raspy song.’ Owl got irritated to hear the continuous song. He looked outside but he was not able to see in the morning.

A few minutes later, he again heard a loud crackling sound. This time, he knew it was a grasshopper.

 The owl angrily said to the grasshopper, "Run away from here. You can't see I'm sleeping."

The grasshopper replied, "I am enjoying the season. I have the right to sing whatever and wherever I want."  The owl realized that arguing with the grasshopper was a waste of time.  The owl did not want to fight. He only wanted to sleep peacefully.

The owl thought for a while and said to the grasshopper, "Don't get me wrong. You sing very well. Your voice is very melodious and ecos all over. You are the king of all singers. I have never heard such a melodious voice."  "But you are sitting too far away.  I can't hear your song clearly, can  you please sing a little louder?" On hearing the praise, the grasshopper became proud and started singing much louder.

The grasshopper said to the owl, "I cannot sing anymore. I am tired and thirsty."

The owl replied, "You sing very well. Please come into my hole and do me the honour of giving you a drink of water."

The grasshopper jumped from its place and sat near the owl's hole. It was dark there so the owl could see the grasshopper. Without wasting even a minute, the owl pounced on the grasshopper and ate it.

Moral: We should be aware of flatters.


Some loanwords used in the English language

Word                 Original Language

anonymous          Greek 

cigar                      Spanish

loot                        Hindi 

cookie                   Dutch

safari                    Arabic 

metropolis           Greek

lemon                   Arabic

avatar                   Sanskrit

ketchup                Chinese

entrepreneur       French

utensil                  French

catalogue            French

justice                  French

massage             Portuguese

vigilante               Spanish 

pizza                    Italian

language             Latin

noodle                 German

alcohol                Japanese 

karma                  Sanskrit

amen                   Hebrew

chess                  Persian

bungalow            Urdu

boycott                Irish

husband             Norwegian

zombie               African



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