Unit 8 Class 10 English: Hobbies and Interests | Common Hobbies | Neb English Notes

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Unit 8 Class 10 English: Hobbies and Interests | Common Hobbies | Neb English Notes
Neb English Notes

Unit 8 Class 10 English: Hobbies and Interests | Common Hobbies | Neb English Notes 


Unit 8 Class 10 English: Hobbies and Interests 

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Reading I

Answer the following questions.

a. What are the common hobbies people often practise?

Answer: 

Reading, cooking, dancing, drawing, playing, gardening, knitting, swimming, writing etc. are the common hobbies people often practise


b. What is your hobby? Why did you choose it?

Answer: 

My hobby is Sketching cartoons. I chose it because cartoon characters fascinated me a lot.

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

Common Hobbies

A. Write synonyms and antonyms for the following words from the text.

a. unrevealed (synonym) 

》hidden 


b. sharpen (synonym)

》hone


c. boring (antonym) 

》exciting


d. unexcited (antonym)

》passionate 


e. healing (synonym) 

》therapeutic 


f. frame (synonym)

》easel 


B. Find the meanings of the following words/phrases from a dictionary and use them in sentences of your own.

a. ignite 

Meaning: To set fire to (something), to light (something)

Sentence: He ignites every single thing of his house.


b. in-demand

Meaning: Sought-after; popular; coveted

Sentence: The new car in the showroom is in-demand. 


c. let off 

Meaning: To cause to explode or come out; to release.

Sentence: They let off the hostages after three days.


d. a notch

Meaning: V-shaped or U-shaped indentation

Sentence: She turned her car furiously at a notch.


e. passionate 

Meaning: Given to strong feeling, sometimes romantic, sexual, or both.

Sentence: Jack is passionate about her.


f. refurbishing

Meaning: The act by which something is refurbished or restored. 

Sentence: The old bridge has been refurbished by them.


g. a blog 

Meaning: A website that allows users to reflect, share opinions, and discuss various topics in the form of an online journal, sometimes letting readers comment on their posts.

Sentence: They are intending to create a new blog in health related niche. 


h. hanging out

Meaning: To spend a lot of time in a place or with someone.

Sentence: We are hanging out with our friends here.


C. Write True if the information is true, False if it is false and NG, if the information is not given in the text.

a. Outdoor hobbies are more popular than indoor hobbies.

》False


b. You need more effort for reading than for other hobbies.

》False


c. Only good dancers choose dancing as their hobby.

》False


d. Antiques are also used for interior decoration in a house.

》NG


e. Paintings can be used to express your feelings.

》True


f. People who choose photography as their hobbies are pro photographers.

》False


g. Keeping journals helps people become successful.

》True


h. Flexibility in time and place is the best part of knitting.

》True


D. Answer these questions.

a. What aspects of our life influence the hobbies we choose?

Answer:

The aspects of our life like our individual preferences, skills, personality, cultural values, accessibility of resources etc. influence the hobbies we choose.


b. What makes reading the most popular hobby?

Answer:

Reading is the most popular hobby. Reading improves overall aspects of human life. It is an activity that can be done anywhere for education, personal development, fun or entertainment, friendships etc.


c. How can people practise dancing?

Answer:

People can practise dancing just by playing music in their living room, joining a dance class, or taking some online dance courses.


d. What things are necessary for one to go with painting?

Answer:

Some paints and brushes are necessary for one to go with painting.


e. Write the benefits of doing photography.

Answer:

The benefits of doing photography are as follows. 

1. We can preserve memories.

2. We can have a collection of pictures on our walls.


f. Why has writing become a popular hobby?

Answer:

Writing has become a popular hobby because it offers freedom to people. People can write everything and anything, from how they spent their day to new recipes.


g. How can knitting be rewarding to a person?

Answer:

Knitting can be rewarding to a person because it gives us the chance to make good use of our free time while improving our skills and making gifts for family and friends. 

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E. Do you think a person's hobby really helps him/her in professional career? Discuss.

Answer:

Yes, I think a person's hobby really helps him/her in professional career. Hobby helps people in the development of their skills. These skills can lead people towards perfection. Achieved skills through hobbies can be a fruitful reward for people to develop their professional careers. They can achieve the height of perfection if they are extremely skilful in their hobbies. Participating in a hobby can help people develop their various abilities. They can apply all their abilities at work and become successful in achieving their goals. The most important thing is passion towards doing something. If people show their passion as well as dedication towards their hobbies, they will do great in their professional careers. Hobbies teach people the way of living their lives. People prefer to choose such professions where they feel free to display their creativity along with passion. Participating in hobbies can reduce stress and increase job satisfaction, leading to higher productivity and better job performance. 

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

Pronunciation

Pronounce the following words after your teacher and notice the consonant clusters in them.

Example: string /str/       milk /Ik/

scout /sk/

instant /nt/

pulp /Ip/

help /Ip/

street /str/ 

frustrating 》/fr/

golf /If/

twelfth /ΞΈ/

scratch /skr/

spurious /sp/

spleen /spl/

sprout /spr/

blog /bl/

sclerosis /scl/

trout /tr/

hundredth /ΞΈ/

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Speaking

A. Study the following examples of people expressing their preferences.

I'd prefer to stay home and do some reading rather than going out. I love reading classics.

I hate outdoor games. I would prefer to sleep.

I prefer lying on a beach to hang-gliding and canoeing. I'm really crazy about sandy beaches.

B. Work in threes. Have similar conversations in the following situations as in the example.

Examples: go to countryside

A: Let's go to the countryside. The weather is so lovely.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I love visiting greenery.

C: No, thanks. I don't like walking long distances. 


a. fly to India

A: Let's fly to India. IPL matches are running.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I like watching cricket games. 

C: No, thanks. I don't like watching cricket games. 


b. play cricket

A: Let's play cricket. My friends are on the ground.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I like playing cricket. 

C: No, thanks. I don't like playing cricket games. 


c. ride a bike

A: Let's ride a bike. The weather is so lovely.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I like riding bikes. 

C: No, thanks. I don't like riding bikes. 


d. go to the stadium

A: Let's go to the stadium. The match between Nepal and India is running on.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I like watching football matches in the stadium. 

C: No, thanks. I don't like watching football matches. 


e. watch the premiere show of Pratigya

A: Let's go and watch the premiere of the movie Pratigya. It is an awesome movie.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I like watching South Indian movies. 

C: No, thanks. I don't like watching movies in theatres. 


f. go swimming

A: Let's go swimming. Today is extremely hot.

B: Wow! That's a great idea. I like swimming in the swimming pools, especially in the summer season. 

C: No, thanks. I don't like swimming and it is risky too.


C. Work in groups. Take turns to express your likes, dislikes or preferences about different careers.

Example: a driver

A: I like driving a private car better than a taxi.

B: I don't mind helping passengers in urgency.

C: I hate being kept waiting by customers.


a teacher

A: I like teaching in a college better than in a community school.

B: I don't mind helping students in break time.

C: I hate being laughed at.


a scientist 

A: I like inventing new things better than old things.

B: I don't mind people commenting on my tasks.

C: I hate being followed by journalists. 


a sweeper

A: I like sweeping here in this place better than in my earlier job.

B: I don't mind people asking for help.

C: I hate being scolded during my task.


a beautician 

A: I like applying foreign creams better than our local creams. 

B: I don't mind people complaining about me.

C: I hate being kept waiting by my customers. 


a policeman 

A: I like working as a policeman in this new place better than the old one.

B: I don't mind helping anybody.

C: I hate being told false statements. 


a businesswoman

A: I like working as a social worker better than a business owner.

B: I don't mind people taking my photographs. 

C: I hate being blackmailed by others.


a journalist 

A: I like writing about social facts better than false stories. 

B: I don't mind people calling me with different names.

C: I hate being stopped in events by policemen. 


a singer

A: I like singing pop songs better than sentimental songs.

B: I don't mind people singing along with me.

C: I hate being invited everywhere. 

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

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Grammar I

A. Complete the following sentences with the correct passive forms of the verbs.

a. Ganga feeds the dogs.

The dogs ............... by Ganga.

are fed


b. The police catch a lot of criminals in London.

A lot of criminals ................in London.

are caught


c. They often help us.

We..................................

are often helped


d. They don't rent cars there.

Cars......................................there.

aren't rented


e. Do you turn the laptop on first?

..................the laptop................ first?

Is / turned on 


f. Somebody follows me home every evening.

Every evening........................home.

I'm followed

g. We usually leave a saucer of milk for the cat.

A saucer of milk .......................for the cat.

is usually left

h. I like journalists following me on the way.

I like........................on the way.

being followed 


i. I loathe people pulling my hair.

I loathe....................................

having my hair pulled.


j.  Ashmina adores teachers checking her notebooks.

Ashmina adores ..............................

having her notebooks checked


k. Deuniya does not mind anyone mocking at him.

Deuniya does not mind .............................

being mocked at.


B. Change the following sentences into passive voice.

a. The gardener waters the flowers every day.

The flowers are watered every day by the gardener.


b. People see foxes in their gardens at night.

Foxes are seen in their gardens at night.


c. We expect students not to talk during examination.

Students are expected not to talk during examination. 


d. Rivers of fresh water form this lake.

This lake is formed by rivers of fresh water.


e. National parks attract many domestic and foreign tourists.

Many domestic and foreign tourists are attracted by National parks.


f. They promise him higher wages.

He is promised higher wages.


g. Does Biraj always beat Balgopal?

Is Balgopal always beaten by Biraj?


h. Nobody knows the secret.

The secret is not known.


i. They are sure to help the helpless.

The helpless are sure to be helped.


j. Scientists have to discover a more effective vaccine for Covid-19.

A more effective vaccine for COVID-19 has to be discovered by scientists. 


k. What do they prefer to eat?

What is preferred to eat?


l. Sources say most people in the region are still illiterate.

Most people are said to be still illiterate in the region.

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

Writing I

People have different hobbies and interests which may lead them to their careers they adopt. Write an essay on your hobbies explaining how they might influence your career.

Hobbies are referred to as some activities that a person is interested in doing in his/her spare time.  A hobby provides us with great pleasure. It makes our life worth living.  Hobbies are not done for the sake of money.


It is not at all necessary that all people have the same hobby.  People's hobbies differ from each other according to their individual behaviour and tastes.  It's not bad to execute a hobby. Having a hobby is beneficial in many cases. If one pursues a hobby, he/she can enjoy his/her leisure and learn at the same time. Hobbies fill various gaps.  It can make us creative in our activities. This allows our mind to be absorbed in something interesting.


Many activities in our life can be developed into hobbies. We should choose our hobbies wisely. Reading, gardening, indoor games, painting, stamp collecting, currency collecting etc are well-known hobbies.


Hobbies are meant for free time. It is a fruitful and creative way of spending the gift it grants.


In my case, my hobby is sketching cartoon animations. I'm too much passionate about this task. I started sketching cartoons when I was in grade 5th. Later on, the task of sketching cartoon characters developed into my hobby. At present, I keep on sketching varieties of cartoon sketches in my leisure time. This hobby provides me with extreme joy and entertainment. Due to this hobby, my creativity has increased in a very amazing way. A hobby of someone might influence their career. My hobby of sketching has turned into my career. Due to this hobby, I'm earning my livelihood. This hobby has supported me in every step of my life. In the early period, people used to criticize me regarding my hobby. But Nowadays people keep on appreciating my tasks. This hobby has made my dream come true. In my career, this hobby has influenced me a lot. This hobby has provided me name and fame along with mental peace. 


Look at the picture and answer the following questions.

a. What are the children doing in the picture?

Answer:

The children are both climbing and sitting on the branches of a tree.


b. Do you like climbing trees? Why?

Answer:

Yes, I like climbing trees. It is because I feel relaxed sitting on the branches of trees.

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

Climbing

A. Find the words from the text above that have the following meanings.

a. a small flash of light, especially a reflected one

》glint


b. main branch of a tree

》bough


c. a little tower of a bulding or a castle

》turret


d. a set of steps leading from one floor of a building to another

》stair


e. causing great wonder; extraordinary

》marvelous 


B. Choose the correct answer.

a. What does the speaker view from the branch of the tree?

i. the sky ii. the earth iii. the town

iii. the town


b. What aids the speaker to go up and up?

i. the apple tree

ii. the branches on the tree

iii. a stair bought for her support

ii. the branches on the tree


c. What does the speaker compare the glow of a dome with?

i. a turret  ii. a spire  iii. sea foam

iii. sea foam


d. Which of the following statements is true?

i. The speaker used to climb onto the tree top.

ii. The speaker is sure to get to the top of the tree now.

iii. The tree leaves will certainly prevent her from going higher and higher.

ii. The speaker is sure to get to the top of the tree now.


e. Which of the following statements carries the message of the poem?

i. We should not give up in the middle of any situation or a goal.

ii. Be satisfied with what you have at the moment.

iii. We cannot enter the heaven without a staircase.

i. We should not give up in the middle of any situation or a goal.


C. Answer these questions.

a. Why does the speaker want to climb on the tree?

Answer:

The speaker wants to climb on the tree to view the town shining up.


b. What things are shining brightly when viewed from above?

Answer:

When viewed from above, a turret and dome are shining brightly.


c. Is it the first time that the speaker has climbed up the tree? How do you know?

Answer:

No, it is not the first time that the speaker has climbed up the tree. Her statements in the third stanza clarify that she has climbed up the tree before.


d. Make a list of words from the poem which describe the light or brightness.

Answer:

Following are the words from the poem which describe the light or brightness.

shining

gleam

glint

Sparkling

bright

glittering

flash


e. What do the sky and the earth symbolise in the poem?

Answer:

In the poem, the sky and the earth symbolize a deep desire for discovery as well as a goal and the starting point or the ground level of the journey. Both refer to the beginning and the end of the goal.


D. "The more determined you are, the better opportunity you will achieve in life and obtain what you want in life." Do you agree with this statement? Discuss.

Answer:

Yes, I agree with this statement. However, determination also requires access to many favourable circumstances in order to take advantage of better opportunities and realize one's life's objectives.


Determination can make a huge difference when it comes to accomplishing one's goals in life.  If we are determined to achieve a specific goal, we will undoubtedly be successful in doing so.  Determination is the best tool to get inspiration and even live a focused life forever. It is a means of overcoming difficulties and reaching the desired destination. It teaches us how to strengthen our willpower and optimistic outlook, all of which are important and helpful in many aspects of life.


Simply being determined can't help alone. Sometimes it may bring disparity or failure in one's life. Apart from being determined, various factors are also required to fulfil one's objective.  Mere determination may not always be enough to ensure success in people's life. Most people show their determination but gain nothing in their lives. Along with determination, it is essential to have the support of the right factors. People must have access to the right resources and opportunities to achieve their expected goals in their life. Various factors can influence people's ability to achieve their goals, no matter how determined they are. Thus, determination also requires right support of essential factors to lead life in a height of perfection. 

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

Grammar ll

A. Study the following short conversations and observe how being or having is used.

Conversation I

Sushil : How do you feel if someone praises you?

Punya : I like people praising me. How about you?

Siddhartha : Well, I don't mind being praised.


Conversation II

Puja : How do you feel if a photojournalist takes your photograph?

Rama : I don't like having my photographs taken. How about you?

Mina : But l adore having my photographs taken.


Now, change the following sentences with passive voice using 'being' or 'having'.

a. Puja hates people shouting at her in the street.

Puja hates being shouted at in the street.


b. Jahagir can't stand beggars wiping his feet.

Jahagir can't stand having his feet wiped by beggars.


c. Our class teacher detests students flattering her.

Our class teacher detests being flattered by students. 


d. The headteacher likes teachers checking students’ homeworks.

The headteacher likes teachers having students' homeworks checked.


e. The actress does not mind journalists following her.

The actress doesn't mind being followed by journalists. 


f.  Rebika prefers people writing to her better than talking to her on the lines.

Rebika prefers being written better than talked on the lines.


B. Change the following sentences into active voice.

 a. A lot of books are stored online by various sites.

Various sites store a lot of books online.


b. Computers are repaired with warranty here.

They repair computers with warranty here.


c. Chinese is rarely spoken in our community.

People rarely speak Chinese in our community. 


d. The criminal is thought to have fled to another country.

People think that the criminal fled to another country.


e. It is believed that the film can spell the spectators.

We believe that the film can spell the spectators. 


f. It is expected that the war is going to end soon.

People expect that the war is going to end soon.


g. She is supposed to be married.

I suppose that she is married.


h. I hate being kept waiting.

I hate people keeping me waiting.


i. She loves having her clothes praised.

She loves people praising her clothes.


j. This road is not very often used.

People don't use this road very often.


k.  Ajima is never punished by teachers.

Teachers never punish Ajima.


l. Many accidents are caused by speeding.

Speeding causes many accidents. 


Writing Il

A. Imagine you are the headteacher of a school and your school has a vacancy for the post of Secondary Level English teacher. Write an advertisement for the post mentioning the required academic qualification, experience, deadline and other necessary information.

 Answer:

                   Job Opportunity 

A well-established community-based school invites applications for the position of Secondary Level English Teacher.  The main objective of our school is to provide quality education to all needy students.  We have an urgent need for an English teacher at the moment.  The candidate for this post should be energetic, young and dedicated.  He/she should possess graduation level qualification with English as a subject.  Candidate should be fluent in both English and Nepali languages.  He/she should have 2 years of work experience in any academic field.  Nepali citizens will be given a lot of preference for this post.

Candidates have to submit two years teaching-related experience letter to our educational institutions.

Remuneration for this particular position is negotiable.

The age limit of the candidate is not more than 30 years.

Interested and eligible candidates are requested to send their handwritten application, complete bio-data, two recent passport-size photographs and copies of testimonials within the 21st of this month to:


Kalika Secondary School 
Tekanpur-6
P.O. box 45305
Sindhupalchok, Nepal

Note: Only selected candidates will be called for written and oral tests.


B. Study the following example of paraphrasing.

Original text

“A 68-year-old Gastonia man says he scared off two men in ski masks trying to break in his home with his gun he can keep on his walker. And then, he taped a note to his door saying if they try to break in his house again, he will be waiting on them.”


Paraphrased text

Two men attempted to break into a 68-year-old man's home. However, they were scared off by the gun the man kept on his walker. Afterwards, the man taped a note to the door warning that he would be waiting for the burglars if they came back.


Now, paraphrase the following texts.

a. Women have traditionally been seen as mothers and homemakers and it is only in recent years that they have been making significant inroads into the job market. There is still a long way to go before they achieve complete equality with men but the situation has definitely improved.

Only recently have women begun to make substantial gains into the employment sector since traditionally, they have been viewed as moms and homemakers. Even while girls still have a long way to go before being treated equally to men, things have undoubtedly changed for the better.


b. In the 1920s, an American academic, Elton Mayo, researched the effects of the physical environment on the productivity of workers. The result, known as the Hawthorne Studies, named after the electrics company where it took place, showed that workers could be motivated to work harder by making small changes to the workplace, such as altering the lighting or the layout of a room.

American researcher Elton Mayo conducted study on how the physical environment affected workers' productivity in the 1920s. The outcome, known as the Hawthorne Studies, was named for the electrics business where it was conducted and shown that modest adjustments to the workplace, such as changing the lighting or the design of a space, might drive employees to work harder.

πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️πŸ”Έ️πŸ”Ή️

Extra Bit

Some useful idioms and their meanings with examples.

1. Spill the beans

Meaning: Revealing the secret or hidden facts

Sentence: Promise me that you will never spill the beans about it.


2. Pull someone's leg

Meaning: To make fun of someone 

Sentence: Don't take it seriously. I was just pulling your leg.


3. Sit on the fence

Meaning: Not to make a decision or take a side when given options or possibilities

Sentence: You can't sit on the fence. Now you tell whom your support.


4. Through thick and thin 

Meaning: Being faithful and loyal in all the circumstances

Sentence: A true friend supports you through thick and thin.


5. Once in a blue moon 

Meaning: An act that rarely happens

Sentence: They take us on tour only once in a blue moon.


6. Take it with a pinch of salt 

Meaning: Not being very serious about something

Sentence: Please don't take the matter seriously. Take it with a pinch of salt.


7. When Pigs fly 

Meaning: Something impossible to happen

Sentence: I will live on the moon when pigs fly.


8. Go down in flames 

Meaning: To fail miserably

Sentence: Without proper actions, your dream will go down in flames.


9. To cost an arm and a leg 

Meaning: Something is very expensive

Sentence: This house cost me an arm and a leg.


10. See eye to eye

Meaning: To accept or agree with each other's opinion

Sentence: We have decided to see eye eye in key issues.


11. A piece of cake

Meaning: Something very easy and simple to do or perform. 

Sentence: Working in the foreign land was not a piece of cake for me.


12. Beat around the bush

Meaning: Avoiding the main matter 

Sentence: Don't beat about the bush. Try to come to your point.


14. Hit the sack

Meaning: Go to bed to sleep. 

Sentence: I am really tired. Now, let me hit the sack.


15. Fit as a fiddle

Meaning: Being in good health

Sentence: Eating healthy food makes fit as a fiddle.


16. Straight from the horse's mouth

Meaning: To the information directly  from the person's mouth rather than from anyone else's mouth

Sentence: Did you get the news straight from the horse's mouth?


17. Action speaks louder than words 

Meaning: What you do have a stronger effect than just talking about it.

Sentence: Should not just talk about helping others we must act. Action speaks louder than words.


18. Bite off more than you can chew

Meaning: Taking more responsibilities than one can manage 

Sentence: To please the manager, I accepted to work so, I bite off more than I can chew.



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UNIT 9 CLASS 10 ENGLISH: HISTORY AND CULTURE



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